عنوان مقاله [English]
Purpose: The research was conducted to investigate and analyze the initial interactions between Islam and Judaism. A significant aspect of the connection between these two civilizations is observed through the ongoing inquiries by Jews regarding the Prophet of Islam (PBUH), who serves as the leader of Islamic civilization and the founder of the last divine religion. This research holds fundamental importance due to its objective.
Methodology: This study employs descriptive-analytical methodology, specifically qualitative document analysis. It investigates the historical data regarding the presence of Jews in Islamic civilization, their inquiries to the Prophet of Islam (pbuh), and His responses. The gathered information will be thoroughly examined, analyzed, and assessed Findings.
Conclusion: The achievements of this research show: The presence of Jews, a few years before the advent of the religion of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), is definite in the field of revelation; therefore, in the analysis and analysis of the political, social and cultural changes of that era, they should not ignore their role and influence. The Jews, through several social coexistence with Arabs and Muslims, played a role in many of the early cultural and social transformations of Islam, and believed in the position and credibility of Jewish thoughts and words due to the repeated promotion of their religion and the induction of the liberal thought, a group of Arabs and simple Muslims. According to historical evidence and the statement of some ancient historians, one of their goals in the Arabian Peninsula was to attend a region based on the repeated eyelashes of the previous prophets, the source of the emergence of the last Prophet and the formation of Islamic civilization. The questions of the Jews from
the the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) can be found in four general areas: 1. History of the ancients and the past nations; 2. Beliefs: 3. The laws and Legal issues; 4. issues related to Empirical science. The increasing number of Belief questions that make up 72 percent of the total questions, indicates the importance of this issue to the Jews. in the 29 questions raised in this regard, has been raised such issues as: The divinity of God, the polytheisism, faith in the divine prophets, the signs of prophecy, the quiddity of the soul, the resurrection. Since in Judaism, The laws and Legal issues have been widely proposed, they have tried to measure the degree of conformity of the Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) replies to their jurisprudential. The nature of the questions of the Jews in the field of laws is discussed by such topics as: “Rajm”, “Menstruation”, “Ahellah” and ... It forms. Their scientific questions also refer to the nature of natural phenomena (thunder), fetal gender and... Has been allocated. The reason for the Jewish question of the Prophet (pbuh) can be categorized into six titles: 1. seeking understanding and awareness, 2. testing the Prophet (PBUH), 3. lying and denial of truths 4. distortion of truths, 5. ignorance (unreasonably) and 6. obstinacy and rejection of the acceptance of the right.
The pattern (examplar) of the civilization of the Prophet (pbuh) in response to Jewish questions, reflects the response approach of Islamic civilization to the questions and concerns of other followers of religions. This approach, on the one hand, is a model for how to interact with other owners of religions, and on the other hand, show their goodwill or ill will In confronting the truth. In other words, in light of these questions and answers, it is possible to retrieve the civilization benefits in the field of the interaction of religions with each other. The practical behavior of the Prophet in confronting the Jews, is the Qur'anic model of civilization in the wise interaction with the Jews; a pattern based on four pillars: 1. reliance on common beliefs (Kalema Sawā) 2. disputations in the best manner (Jidāl Aḥsan) 3. Wisdom (ḥikmat) 4. goodly exhortation (almau’iẓatulḥasanah).
A look at historical documents and reports shows that the Prophet of Islam (PBUH), in response to Jewish questions, first, has "relied on common beliefs". If this Qur'anic mechanism was not solved, it would have benefited from the controversy of disputations in the best manner (Jidāl Aḥsan) (ie: Relying on reasonable acceptable assessments). Throughout his entire Way (Method) of the Prophet was based on wisdom and good sermon. In other words, "wisdom" and "goodly exhortation (almaū’iẓatulḥasanah)" formed the intrinsic course of the Prophet in any interaction, including dialog with the Jews. However, today the model of the civilization mentioned, can also be considered in interaction with followers of other religions, including Jews.